The Best Espresso Machines For Home Baristas in 2020
Looking for the best home espresso maker? but how do you choose the right one from the thousands available? This is a big decision; you’re not buying a new toothbrush here!
Here’s our updated espresso machine reviews for 2020. We cover a few different categories to help you find the right machine to fit your style, kitchen, and budget; just see them listed below to navigate to the class that suits you most.
You’re about to learn how to choose the right machine, which will get you one step closer to making coffee shop level espresso. We’ve rounded up some of the best picks from each category so that you don’t have to spend hours researching, or worse, spend hundreds on a lemon.
AT A GLANCE:
Types of espresso machines
Not so fast there tiger. Before you choose the best espresso machine you have to know what TYPE of machine you want. Here’s a quick rundown of the official types, and everything in between:
Manual (or lever) espresso machines
The original espresso maker, introduced in 1905. These require (and reward) skill and practice. If you want to control everything about your espresso shot and milk frothing, these are the benchmark. You basically do everything, from grinding, to pushing, to frothing, and then hopefully enjoying.
Related: The best manual espresso machines.
Semi-Automatic espresso machines
If you like the satisfaction that comes from hands-on espresso making (but don’t want to have to do every last step yourself), a semi-automatic machine could be just the thing. You choose how much coffee to put in the filter basket, you tamp the grinds to the right pressure, you start and stop the pump to control how much water you use.
This article focuses mainly on semi-automatic machines, and for arguments sake, most people refer to these machines when they talk about ‘home espresso machines’. We’ll cover these in detail
Fully automatic espresso machines
Also known as ‘super automatic machines’; one-touch operation is what these machines are all about. Many let you program in your preferences in coffee strength and milk frothing, but typically you do that once and then select your programmed drink later with no fuss. For lazy, time-poor types, these are your go to.
In terms of espresso quality, they don’t pair up to manual or semi-auto machines, but for those looking for something quick and easy without losing too much quality, they are great.
Related: A look at the best automatic espresso machines of 2020.
Portable espresso makers
Aka compact espresso machines or travel espresso makers. Great for people with tiny kitchens or living the #vanlife, many of these don’t require electricity for the ultimate in portability. They vary greatly in espresso quality however, so make sure you spend time choosing wisely
Related: The best portable espresso makers of 2020.
Pod espresso machines
Last and certainly least, are pod espresso makers, which while convenient, don’t make the best espresso in terms of quality, in my opinion. Still, we’ve recommended a few below, because they are convenient if nothing else.
Related: Best Nespresso machines
Commercial espresso machines
As the name suggests, commercial machines are designed for coffee shops and you’ll rarely see one in a home baristas coffee space. They are expensive, but are built to handle high volume espresso making. Still, there are a few that cross the line of commercial and home use, which we talk about below.
If you’re looking for an espresso machine suitable for a coffee shop the machines below are not for you. Instead, read our guide to the best commercial espresso machines here.
Stove top espresso makers
Also called ‘the moka pot’ these small and simple devices are not truely espresso makers, because they can’t brew at the pressure required to brew true espresso (which is 15 bars).
I’m only mentioning it here because so many people are mislead into thinking they are espresso machines. They are not. If you’re looking for a Moka pot – this guide covers the best moka pots.
Ok, now that we have out of the way: without further ado, lets see some of the best espresso machines that make real espresso:
||Breville Barista Express (BES870XL)||
||DeLonghi EC155 15 Bar Pump Espresso Maker||
||Mr. Coffee Cafe Barista Espresso And Cappuccino Maker||
||Gaggia Classic Pro Espresso Machine||
||Rancilio Silvia M Espresso Machine||
||DeLonghi EC680M DEDICA||
||DeLonghi Magnifica ESAM 3300 Automatic Espresso Machine||
||Wacaco MiniPresso GR||
||La Pavoni Professional||
||Breville BEC120 Inissia||
The 15 Best espresso Machines for Home Use Baristas
Budget, affordable, inexpensive; whatever you want to call it, readers often ask: “whats the best espresso machine under $100?”. While we can’t answer that question directly because prices are always changing, this machine is a great starting point.
The DeLonghi EC155 is an extremely affordable entry-level option. This Italian-made machine combines accessibility and ease of use with the reputation of an established company. It comes with the patented DeLonghi Cappuccino Frothing Wand for easy milk frothing and a 3-in-1 filter holder that works for both ground coffee and espresso pods.
The black and stainless steel exterior is compact, making it a seamless fit for many modern kitchens. If you’re wondering where to buy a DeLonghi EC155, or want more information click the button below or read our full review here.
An affordable cappuccino and latte maker
- Dimensions: 12.6″ x 8.9″ x 11.2″
- Material: Stainless Steel
- Capacity: 1.7 liter (water tank), 0.5 liter (milk)
- Pressure: 15 bar
The Mr. Coffee Cafe Barista Espresso and Cappuccino Maker is all about convenience. Brewing options, an automatic frother, even the adjustable cup height on the tray make this ideal for anyone who wants to experiment without taking the plunge into more expensive machinery.
Frothing milk is done automatically (no guesswork) and the milk reservoir is removable, allowing you to store unused milk for next time, and the water reservoir also pops out easily, making refilling a cinch. Plus, the one-touch control panel makes selecting the kind of drink utterly convenient.
This is in many ways the “sweet spot” of the home espresso machine market: the higher-priced machines deliver more, but you can get solid features in this bracket. If you’re looking for a convenient, quick way to get a decent cup of espresso, cappuccino, latte, etc., this is a great choice. Read our Mr. Coffee Cafe Barista review here.
Another great inexpensive espresso machine
- Dimensions: 9.6″ x 7.2″ x 11.9″
- Material: Stainless stell
- Capacity: 35 oz.
- Pressure: 15 bar
A 15-bar pump; filter baskets for single shots, double shots, and espresso pods; a milk frother that doesn’t require movement – the DeLonghi ECP3420 is a low-price powerhouse. Adjustable controls let you find your favorite drink settings, and the removable drip tray gives you room under the dual-spout portafilter for tall mugs if you like lattes.
If you’re stepping up to this price range, you can get some more sophisticated machinery without a huge layout of cash.
The DeLonghi EC702 is a fantastic device that is sleek, simple, easy to operate and delivers great espresso. Using a unique, patented dual filter holder, you can brew with both your own ground coffee and espresso pods. It comes equipped with two separate thermostats to govern the temperatures of both the steam and the water, is self-priming, and its user-friendly frother is great for making cappuccinos and lattes.
It claims to have a no-drip design and to be a fairly clean machine, but many reviews point out that it can require quite a bit of cleaning and maintenance nonetheless. One powerful positive to this option is its stainless steel boiler, an upgrade from other lesser quality versions, which should keep you going for years to come. Read our DeLonghi EC702 review.
Capresso is owned by Jura, who make some of the hottest (and priciest) semi-automatic and automatic machines in the home arena. Check out the best Jura coffee machines here (It’s also possible to find heavily discounted used or refurbished Jura models). The Capresso 125 has a 15-bar pump, fed by an advanced boiler that maintains the right temperature for perfect extraction.
All of the machines so far could make you a good cup of coffee – the Capresso 125 Cafe PRO could make you a better barista.
Better still, the Capresso 125 comes with two portafilters. The first is a heavy-duty double spout unit, meant for beginners. This one is designed to produce delicious espresso without having to worry too much about your tamping or grind size. Want to step up your barista game? The bottomless filter, like those used in barista competitions, builds pressure based on grind size and tamp. The crema stays richer, and the espresso hotter, because of reduced contact with the portafilter.
The semi-automatic Gaggia Classic Pro handles the basics of brewing espresso but gives you amazing control over the end product. Want to keep it simple? The portafilter comes with a pressurized basket designed to take ESE pods. Want a little more involvement? There’s also a pressurized basket for ground coffee.
Either one will give you a solid espresso with a decent crema, without weighing or tamping – all you have to do is fill the basket, then start and stop the pump. Or you can take it to the next level with the professional, non-pressurized basket which is where you can start learning finesse.
Grind size, grams, timing – the Gaggia Classic lets you develop your skills as you learnt to make world class espresso. And speaking of skills, the commercial steam wand on this and many other Gaggia products is world class. Last but not least, we can’t go past the classic, italian style design. This thing would look amazing in any Kitchen, including yours. Read our Gaggia Classic Pro review here.
Real baristas know the importance of pre-infusing the grinds to get the best extraction. With the Breville BES 840XL, this is built into the machine. A steady, low-pressure pre-infusion – much like the “bloom” on a pour over – prepares the grinds for the optimal 9-bar extraction. Unlike another Breville machine, the 800ESXL, this machine’s PID temperature controller is programmable in 2-degree increments and reduces fluctuations during extraction for consistent flavor.
The double-shot filter baskets take a dose up to 19-22 g (typically, filter baskets take 11-13 g) if you’re looking for a higher coffee-to-water ratio. Combine this with flexible shot control (including manual shot control),and you are fully in charge. The Infuser is like the Barista express, but with less features (and a more attractive price tag) Read more about the Breville Infuser in our full review here.
Our review of the Breville BES870XL Barista Express came up with a fairly common theme: a ton of people love this thing! It’s bigger than other machines, especially in width, and exudes espresso-making authority with a host of options and variations that give you more control over the brewing process.
This maker grinds beans fresh with a built-in grinder, has a 2L water tank (a removable water tank) with filter capability, and a stainless steel 360-degree swivel action steam wand – all tools that can allow you to make fresh, crafted coffee at a rapid rate. The unit even comes with a dedicated hot water outlet, making it more of an all-in-one device (and making up for some of the extra countertop space it requires). Click here to check it out now.
The Rancilio Silvia M’s track record over the last decade has truly set it apart as a superior entry-level machine, yet it has the ability to satisfy the experienced barista. With an iron frame and stainless steel exterior, this sleek Italian machine is built to last. The unit is equipped with a forged marine brass group head boiler, leading to greater stability in heat and longer-lasting pieces, as well as a large 12-oz boiler, which gives an incredible steam capacity.
It has a commercial-sized portafilter and creates less mess with a 3-way solenoid valve that relieves pressure on the coffee grounds after an extraction. The one disappointment is the lack of a built-in grinder. Many users complain of having to work fairly intensively to find a grind that works. But seriously, if you’re going to invest in a machine as sweet as this one, learning how to grind coffee well should be a priority anyway.
The EC860M DEDICA is a compact, sleek machine that takes up less than six inches of counter space (in width), yet still has a 35-ounce water reservoir that holds enough water for 17 2-ounce shots. It’s available in black and red, as well as stainless steel.
The dual-spout portafilter means you can brew two shots at once if you’re starting the day with a friend, or a double if you need a little more coffee love in your morning.You can also fit an ESE pod. Plus you can remove the drip tray to fit a taller cup underneath the portafilter. It’s built-in steam wand means you can froth milk for cappuccinos and lattes.
True, you’ll need to provide your own steaming pitcher, and you’ll need a grinder that gives you ground coffee fine enough for espresso. But that’s true for most compact machines, especially at this price point.
DeLonghi Magnifica ESAM 3300 Automatic Espresso Machine – best fully automatic espresso machine
Type: Fully automatic
- Dimensions: 17″ x 13″ x 18″
- Material: Stainless steel and plastic
- Capacity: 1.8 liter reservoir. Bean capacity: 8.8 oz.
- Pressure: 15 bar
So, you want to wake up every morning to the perfectly brewed, silky-smooth, flavor-bursting cup of coffee, without the complexity found in so many machines? Then you’re looking for an automatic espresso machine. The biggest player in this space is probably Jura, but here are three of our favorites from all brands.
As we mentioned earlier, if you’re looking for an automatic machine, head to our review roundup of the best automatic machines here.
The Magnifica brings the capability and aroma of an Italian cafe right into your home. It grinds the beans for you in its built-in burr grinder and can brew the espresso at adjustable levels of strength. It also has a single or double shot espresso option. Be aware that it works best with medium roasts and is NOT good with oily coffee beans.
The unit comes equipped with the DeLonghi’s patented dual thermostat and frother as well. Read our full review of the Magnifica here.
The Gaggia Brera is the Apple product of espresso. Stylish and compact, it just plain works. And not only that, it’s a workhorse. Its super user-friendly design makes it possible for those who want truly great espresso to make their own without taking a course on “how to be a barista.”
The Brera’s pre-infusion brew system allows the machine to get more out of the beans before it starts brewing. It also comes with a 4-stage water filtration system (although the actual filters for the system are not included in the initial purchase), three varying strengths of espresso, and it even warns you when it needs to be cleaned and descaled.
All in all, this is a great mid-range option for those passionate about espresso and equipped with the palate to notice minor changes in water quality and coffee flavor.
The Wacaco MiniPresso is a portable option to have an espresso “on-the-go”. Made of sturdy plastic, this cylindrical espresso maker comes apart into several pieces but goes back together into one piece that stores easily as a single unit.
See our full list of great portable espresso makers if you want something portable.
Now, it should come as no surprise that this manual brewer requires you to provide your own water and grind your own coffee. However, once you have these and you’ve loaded the filter and water chamber, you’re ready to make some espresso and simultaneously get a nice little hand workout. The pump on the side of the cylinder pops out and after a few priming pumps, you should begin to get coffee out of the bottom.
While this is obviously not the perfect answer to an easy morning espresso in your kitchen, the Wacaco Portable MiniPresso can be a perfect and affordable addition to your coffee arsenal, equipping you with a predictable cup of espresso quite literally anywhere you might find yourself.
Steampunk fans, your machine is ready. The Pavoni name is familiar to espresso connoisseurs around the world. A Milanese man called Desiderio Pavoni was the first to produce commercial espresso machines in 1905. Made from brass and copper, the La Pavoni Professional begs you to wear goggles and a leather flying cap while pulling a shot.
It doesn’t have a spring lever but a piston, meaning it works purely on the user’s muscle power. This – well, let’s say it – rewards practice. Pull too quickly and it blows bubbles out the portafilter; pull it just right and your espresso comes with an extra helping of well-deserved pride.
If the Chemex speaks to Mies Van der Rohe designs, the La Pavoni cries out for Art Deco china to sip your coffee from.
The Professional is also less bottom-heavy, meaning it can be difficult to keep in place in operation. (Get used to holding the base down while you lift the lever.) It has a capacity of about 32 single shots. However, as it is a piston-operated machine, achieving a consistent brew takes practice and attention. But isn’t that half the reason you want a manual machine in the first place?
No need to extol the virtues of Breville as a manufacturer of quality espresso machines. The BEC120 Inissia marries Breville’s reputation with the popular Nespresso coffee pod format, offering a wide range of different roasts and flavors. You can select the size you want: an espresso (0.84 oz), or a lungo (1.35 oz). Just pop in a pod, push one of the two buttons and get ready to sip.
All this makes is espresso, so if you want a cappuccino or a latte, you’ll need to provide your own way of steaming milk.
Espresso Machine Brands
Here’s a look at some of the top names in the industry:
Established in 1932, Breville has manufactured some of the most respected small kitchen appliances on the market and is an award winner for creating innovative products that are equally affordable as they are high quality (3).
Breville offers a one-year limited warranty on all products – meaning while you get to know your machine you’ll have no fear of showing it some tough love. Breville designs products with features for the espresso beginner to espresso expert. Not only are the features easy to use, but they allow for the perfect cup of coffee every time.
Check out the customer favourite Breville machines here.
Located in Treviso, Italy, DeLonghi manufactures a wide range of kitchen appliances (4). Originally incorporated as a machine-tool maker in 1902, they diversified in 1950 and bought the rights to manufacture Braun household products in 2013. DeLonghi produced their first espresso maker, the BAR5, in 1993. Their Magnifica, introduced in 2004, was the firm’s first fully automatic espresso and cappuccino maker. In 2007, they launched their first product in partnership with Nespresso, the Lattissima.
Nespresso (a combination of the parent company name, Nestlé, with espresso) debuted the coffee-capsule concept in 1986. Four coffee flavors and two machines made up their original product line.
As early as 1991, questions about the aluminum coffee capsules led Nespresso to begin a recycling program in their native Switzerland, with 34 recycling centers around the country (5). They maintain programs in sustainability and environmental responsibility to this day, not only in ethical trading in coffee but in sourcing aluminum for their capsules. In 2015, Nespresso opened Switzerland’s first LEED-certified manufacturing facility.
Beginning in 2010, competitors began making coffee capsules that would work in Nespresso machines. Nespresso also licenses the process to other coffee makers.
Achille Gaggia patented the first steamless espresso machine in 1938, introducing a new way of making Italy’s signature beverage. The hot-water method is also credited with first producing the layer of crema that espresso lovers enjoy today. Their Gilda, introduced in 1952, is considered the first espresso machine intended for home use (6).
Because early Gaggia machines introduced the lever-action espresso maker, we have them to thank for the term “pulling a shot” to refer to producing an espresso with a lever. Not until Faema introduced the motorized pump to deliver hot water to the portafilter in 1961 did espresso fans finally get the full 9 bar effect now considered de rigueur for proper espresso.
Once upon a time, there was a percolator, and it was the way millions of households brewed their coffee. Water bubbled up through the center of the device, then dripped through the grounds to be re-heated and re-bubbled, cooking and oxidizing the solids extracted from the coffee grounds (which were probably scooped out of a can, but that’s another story).
One of the first automatic drip coffee makers designed for home use… Mr. Coffee became a market leader almost immediately.
And then, in 1972, Mr. Coffee burst on the scene and transformed our mornings (7). Heated water passed over the coffee grounds only once, solving the problems of over-extraction and overheating in one simple step. The automatic coffee maker pioneered by Mr. Coffee changed the way coffee drinkers made and enjoyed their morning brew.
Lingo And Features
Espresso machines have their own language. Here are some definitions to help you take your first step into a larger world:
- ‘Espresso shot’ and ‘Double Shot’: at the simplest level, these describe the volume of the espresso you pull from your espresso machine. Most espresso makers offer a selection of filter baskets, one containing enough grinds for a single espresso shot, the other enough for a double shot. A real shot of espresso requires a minimum level of pressure (8). Contrary to popular belief; Moka pots do not compare.
- Portafilter: the piece that holds the filter basket, which you typically lock in place before pulling a shot. Portafilters come in various sizes, from 40 to 60 mm. This matters if you’re buying spare filter baskets, or when you buy a tamper.
- Filter basket: the piece inside the portafilter that holds the ground coffee. Many espresso machines have interchangeable filter baskets for different sizes (and strengths) of espresso shots. Some also have a filter basket designed to hold an ESE pod.
- One touch: a function that lets you create a drink with the push of a single button. Many super-automatic espresso machines let you program a specific drink, then brew it with a single button. For example, you might program the amount of coffee used in a drink, the ideal temperature of the water, and the amount of steamed milk you prefer. Later, you can brew your custom drink with one touch.
- Heating system: the parts that heat water for espresso and for steaming milk using your milk frother. The wattage and design of an espresso machine’s heating system have an effect on how quickly that machine can heat water for your morning coffee, and how consistent the temperature is.
- Single-boiler: a heating system that uses one boiler to provide hot water for the espresso and steam for the milk frother. Most manual espresso makers have a single-boiler heating system, requiring you to pull the espresso shot first and then steam your milk. Some automatic and super-automatic machines have dual-boiler systems, which let them steam milk and pull a shot from separate boilers at the same time.
- Drip tray: the removable section where you rest your cup while pulling a shot. Drip trays catch any drips after you remove the cup (or carafe). When you remove them, you can empty and clean them without having to take the entire espresso maker to the sink. Some espresso machines let you remove the drip tray to fit a taller cup or mug under the portafilter.
- Steam wand: the part of your espresso machine that steams milk for cappuccinos and lattes. We’ve taken a look at the the best cappuccino makers and you can see the list here. Some steam wands are operated by a button; others require you to turn a knob controlling the volume of steam that passes through the wand and into your milk. Some milk frothing systems pull milk through a valve that froths and heats them as they pass through it, allowing you to pour the milk directly into the drink. Not all machines are suitable for making lattes, but these are.
- Water reservoir: the container holding the water you use to make espresso, and also to generate steam for the milk frother. The larger your water reservoir, the more espresso shots you can pull without refilling (and reheating).
Alternatively, watch our video on espresso basics:
What Else You’ll Need
Depending on the espresso machine you choose, you might need to purchase one or more of these accessories. If you want amazing crema-rich espresso, sometimes you need to invest a little more. But seeing as you’ve read this far, i’m guessing you want the best espresso available.
A Burr Coffee Grinder
Most aficionados agree that a burr grinder is the best all-around choice for consistency and quality of grinds (9).
If you like the old-school approach, a hand grinder gives you fine control over the coffee grounds you produce and doesn’t use electricity. If you’re getting a small, portable machine like the Wacaco Mini Presso GR for camping or travel, take a look at our review of manual coffee grinders and see whether one of these would make a great addition to your go-bag.
Espresso grind is much finer than regular brew coffee… Whether hand-crank or electric, a burr grinder slices the beans into controlled, sized pieces, optimizing the flavor extraction.
The most important characteristic for a coffee grinder to use with your espresso machine: it must produce an extremely fine grind. Read our review of the best burr grinders to learn more, or just take a look at our top pick, the Baratza Virtuoso Conical Burr Grinder.
An Espresso Tamper
The tamper is a tool used to evenly compress the espresso grinds into the basket (aka portafilter) of the espresso machine to make a high-quality shot of espresso.
Some espresso machines come with a tamper. With others, you may need to buy one. You can even buy a nifty spring-loaded tamper that puts just the right load on your coffee grounds to ensure they’re packed just right.
Read about our favorite tampers in this article.
A Milk Frother (maybe)
If you choose a super-automatic or automatic espresso machine, it likely has a milk frother, or at least a steam wand for making cappuccinos and lattes. But if you buy a budget espresso maker, you might need a way to make steamy, frothy milk for your beverages.
In a pinch, you can simply heat milk on a saucepan and whip it with a wire whisk. But it’s not going to be as foamy as you can get with a dedicated milk frother.
If your espresso maker doesn’t have a steam wand and you can’t face the day without a cappuccino, check out our review of the five best milk frothers.
A Steaming Pitcher
The best espresso machines usually includes a steam wand, but If your espresso maker does not have a steam wand, you’ll want a 3rd party steaming pitcher to make cappuccinos and lattes. You can use a measuring cup or even a coffee mug, but the best steaming pitchers have tapered sides to help contain the splashes as you steam and froth the milk for your beverage.
Steaming milk is critical to good milk-based coffee like cortados, lattes, cappuccinos etc.
And there you have it – now all you need to do is learn how to use your machine to brew damn fine espresso – then drink and enjoy your cup of joe. Once you have chosen the best espresso machine for your needs you’ll go to sleep each night with a smile on your face knowing what the next morning holds – that’s right -freshly brewed, high quality espresso.
Things you should consider when choosing an espresso machine include price (it needs to suit your budget), size (it needs to fit in your kitchen), durability of the machine and its parts, availability of spare parts, and how easy it is to clean and maintain. Other key considerations include whether you want or need an built-in grinder, how many people will use it (this will affect the size of the water reservoir you’ll need), and – if this is important to you – what it looks like.
Generally, pod machines are cheaper than genuine espresso machines but the pods themselves are much more expensive than buying beans. Over time, a genuine espresso machine will pay for itself against a pod machine, for anybody who’s prepared to take that initial hit.
Pod machines are more convenient than machines that use freshly ground beans, but they offer real sacrifices in the quality of the shots they can produce. This convenience issue can be mitigated through the purchase of fully automatic machines or machines like the Breville Barista Express that have built-in grinders. Pod machines also have a much harsher effect on the environment due to the excess waste created by used pods.
Typically, espresso is brewed using dark roasted beans because they contain the highest amount of natural oils and are the least acidic. The richness in natural oils, and other aspects of dark roasts, help bring about that thick golden crema we all expect from a flawless espresso shot. Here’s a list of suitable beans to choose from.
The ideal pressure for making espresso is 9 BAR. When choosing an espresso machine, however, you want a machine that has a pump capable of creating 15 BAR of pressure. This is because the pressure relates to the amount of coffee being used and the grind size. If the grind is too fine, the pump will have to work harder to push the water through the so-called “puck”, sometimes going as high as 11 BAR. This means that if you see espresso machines offering more than 15 BAR, you’ll know that it won’t make any qualitative difference to the shots they pull (10).
The temperature of your espresso machine should be between 195 to 205 degrees Fahrenheit (11). You want to make sure that your machine can maintain this average water temperature while brewing in order to extract your espresso at optimal capacity.
- National Coffee Association. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncausa.org/about-coffee/how-to-store-coffee
- Ltd, R. and M. (2019, April). Global Coffee Pods and Capsules Market – Growth, Trends, and Forecast (2019 – 2024). Retrieved from https://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/4763958/global-coffee-pods-and-capsules-market-growth
- Herborn, D. (2018, July 17). From Australia to the world: Jim Clayton. Retrieved from https://www.theceomagazine.com/executive-interviews/manufacturing/jim-clayton/
- History. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.thegreatitaliancafe.com/history.html
- Rawes, E. (2019, April 9). How to recycle (or reuse) Nespresso Pods. Retrieved from https://www.digitaltrends.com/home/how-to-recycle-or-reuse-nespresso-pods/
- Bryman, H. (2019, February 19). Historic Brand Gaggia Milano Revived with New Commercial Line. Retrieved from https://dailycoffeenews.com/2019/02/19/historic-brand-gaggia-milano-revived-with-new-commercial-line/
- Hensel, A. (2015, August 4). Mr. Coffee Co-Founder (and Industry Disruptor) Dies. Retrieved from https://www.inc.com/anna-hensel/mr-coffee-cofounder-dies.html
- Kilbride, D. (2018, June 21). How Does Pressure Affect Espresso Quality? Retrieved from https://www.perfectdailygrind.com/2017/06/pressure-espresso-quality/
- Mazzarello, B. (2018, April 4). The Right Grinder for You. Retrieved from https://blog.bluebottlecoffee.com/posts/the-right-grinder-for-you
- Muhl, R. (2016, December 14). Brew pressure explained. Retrieved from https://www.fivesenses.com.au/blog/brew-pressure-explained/
- How to Brew Coffee The NCA Guide to Brewing Essentials. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncausa.org/About-Coffee/How-to-Brew-Coffee