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Sumatra Coffee Guide

Sumatra Coffee Facts

  • Starbucks is a major purchaser of the Sumatran bean, and they offer two varieties: regular and aged.
  • The aging process gives a spicy note that only adds to the unique flavors of this bean. 
  • More than 90% of coffee beans in Sumatra is grown by smallholders, on farms of around one hectare (roughly 2.5 acres) in size.
  • It's often used as part of a blend due to its flavor and low acidity. You’ll find it alongside South American beans, which typically have bright acidity to fill out the flavor of the blend.
facts about the sumatran coffee

Sumatra Has Magical Growing Conditions for Coffee

The indonesian island of Sumatra has the perfect climate for growing Arabica beans. The perfectly balanced soil, combined with the islands location on the equator create a tropical climate thats perfect for growing Arabica beans. (1)

One minute its glorious sunshine, the next moment rain is hammering down. These are conditions that gardeners spend hours trying to achieve in their greenhouses.

Indonesia is the third-largest coffee producer in the world, but coffee isn’t native to the area. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) brought coffee tree seedlings to the area in the 17th century, starting coffee production in Jakarta (Batavia) on the island of Java, and then expanding to other islands including Sumatra. (​2​​​)

Facts about Sumatran Coffee

Major Growing Regions

There are three main varieties of coffee beans sourced from the growing regions of Sumatra: Mandheling, Lintong, and Gayo.

information about where sumatran coffee grows
  • Mandheling is grown in the north and is considered by many to be the best coffee beans that Sumatra produces. 
  • Lintong, where the beans grown on a high plateau overlooking Lake Toba, is renowned for balancing a rich flavor with a clean aftertaste.
  • Gayo Peaberry, grown in the northern Aceh region, offers the dense, intense flavor associated with these small, round beans.

Flavor Comes from the Processing

What gives these beans the flavour is the processing method: Wet hulling, or giling basah in the Bahasa language spoken in Sumatra. You might also (confusingly) hear this called dry processing, or natural processing.

Here's an image showing how this process works once the coffee cherries are picked:

the explanation and process of wet-hulling

Wet hulling means that the beans retain a higher moisture content than other methods. While many other of the best coffee-growing countries dry their beans to around 11% residual moisture, the giling basah method dries the beans to 50% moisture content.

Wet-hulled beans are a side effect of Sumatra having such a damp climate: farmers there have typically less than 4 hours of drying time a day. This method gives the coffee beans its unique flavor. (3)

Flavor Profile: What Do Sumatra Coffee beans Taste like?

  • Low Acidity (more low-acid beans here)
  • Earthy flavor; mossy, funky and mushroomy
  • Full body
  • Better dark roasted for sweetness
  • Aroma: Herby, woodland-y, umami

You'll generally hear: Complex, full-bodied, and rich, but this can often be because roasters tend to prefer a dark roast (more on that later). With changes in roasting ideas, the flavor is becoming (a little) brighter and fresher.

PRO TIP: Consider using Sumatra coffee beans in a blend as it makes a great base note: it’s earthy and complicated and low in acid. it’s often partnered with coffee from Ethiopia (aromatic at the top end, and fruity) or South American (acidic).

Because this bean is so good in a Blend, its been featured on the Homegrounds.co list of favourites. If you're getting into blending, its a great place to start.

The Best Sumatra Coffee Beans

You can walk into Starbucks and buy pre-ground coffee. But if you’re following this blog the chances are we don’t need to tell you why you don’t want to buy off-the-shelf coffee. Although you will find these beans on the shelves of gourmet food stores, they’re probably best avoided for the same reasons.

I usually buy all my Sumatran beans from Volcanica Coffee as they come with all the necessary certifications, and they offer 4 great options:

White Mansion

Sumatra Mandheling coffee is a rare Indonesian coffee bean named after the Mandheling people who traditionally grew it. These beans are semi-washed and sun-dried, and brew a super smooth cup with a rich, full, and heavy body.

Packed with exotic flavors including wine, dried fruit, and brown sugar, and a wonderful aroma that includes hints of cocoa and brown spice. All of this is finished off with an earthy richness and a pleasantly thick, syrupy aftertaste.

Fair Trade and Rainforest Alliance certified, Shade Grown, and even organic certified, too. These beans are also very affordable for Third Wave coffee (especially when Volcanica’s exacting standards are taken into consideration) and are medium roasted after you place your order to ensure they arrive at optimum freshness.

Traditional House

If you’re a fan of low acidity coffee, this single-origin reserve is an option you’re going to want to consider. Whats the difference between these beans and the above option? This Sumatra Mandheling Reserve is very similar to its “non-reserve” cousins, with the notable exception that they are dark rather than medium roasted.

Their full-bodied, well-balanced, and mildly acidic profile lends itself to a darker roast, and the earthier, brown sugar and syrupy richness of the beans make them ideal candidates to be enhanced by a bit of extra time in the roaster.

Along with being dark roasted to bring out those beautiful, earthy flavors, these are also decorated with a plethora of certifications, including Fair Trade and Rainforest Alliance certified, Shade Grown, and organic. They are also a very affordable option for an elite coffee bean and, per Volcanica’s excellent policy, they are roasted after your order is placed, so they come to you at their peak flavor.


mountains and islands surrounded by ocean water

This Sumatran Gayo coffee brews a sweet, clean cup that is both crisp and complex, earthy and spicy. It carries with it a lighter syrupy taste along with a very gentle finish.

The flavor profile of these exotic beans is LOADED, especially for the typically mellow beans of the region. Flavors include cacao nib, wisteria, peach, caramel, and even a hint of moist, fresh-fallen leaves.

Everything from their region to their quality growing standards, wet hulling, and overall ethical production, has ranked these clean and sweet beans as some of the best in the world. And then, of course, there’s the ethical factor that Volcanica brings to the table. These beans have been carefully sourced and run the typical gamut of certifications. They’re organically grown and both Fair Trade and Rainforest Alliance certified.

Again - medium roasted and shipped out after your order has been placed, giving you the freshest brewing experience possible.

peaberry from sumatra gayo

Carrying on with the Sumatra Gayo theme, next up is Volcanica’s Sumatra Gayo Peaberry, and you can rest assured we saved the absolute best for last. They’re the highest quality Gayo available – especially when you consider that peaberry beans usually make up only 5% of a crop! All of this makes them the elite of the elite.

These beans are grown in the highlands of northern Sumatra around Lake Laut Tawar (we’re talking between 4,500 and 6,000 feet, making it a strictly High Grown Coffee). Sweetly crisp, complex overtones with a myriad of flavors stretching from caramel and peach all the way to cardamom, clove, and fresh-fallen leaves.

They bring a terrific combination of bright yet low levels of acidity; are wet-processed (not dry processed) and sun-dried, and come with a couple of crucial certifications. They are both organic and Fair Trade certified, which means you’re getting a product that has been thoughtfully and ethically grown and harvested.


How to Brew Sumatra Coffee Beans

The gutsy flavor of Sumatra coffee is brilliantly suited to espresso. But it can be a little tricky pulling the perfect espresso shot with wet processed beans. Be prepared to practice a little.

"Keep your temperature lower so you don’t burn the already heavy body. Don’t run your shots too long. And do your best to keep your flavours balanced, so as to highlight the strengths of the coffee" - Perfect Daily Grind.

Don’t have an espresso machine? You can also use an Aeropress or stovetop espresso maker. These take a little bit of getting used to, but when you have the knack it’s simple. 

Alternatively, its great for cold brew. Set your grinder too coarse, and use our French Press cold brewing method to produce a chilled and flavorful cup. Cold brew allows flavors to develop but is even lower acidity than a regular cup of Sumatran so it’s ultra-smooth. Being low in acid makes cold-brew kinder to your teeth and stomach, and it’s packed full of antioxidants too.

How To Roast

"Wet hulled coffees are slightly harder to roast...Wet hulled beans tend to have an extra 1% moisture than other coffee methods, so you’ll need to heat the the coffee a little bit more towards the start of the roast." - R Lynch, Perfect Daily Grind

an explanation of the two types of roasting sumatran coffee
  • Roasting - Use a dark roast; It adds sweetness to the earthy flavour notes and brings out the natural chocolate flavors of the beans. 
  • Cooking - Yes, sumatra coffee beans are great for cooking! Not only does coffee add to the flavor of meat dishes, but it also helps to tenderise (giving you a melt-in-your-mouth experience). Try using it as a marinade or a spice rub for your BBQ's meat.

Nikmati Kopimu (Enjoy Your Coffee)

Whether the idea of a forest-floor tasting coffee appeals to you or not, everyone should try a cup of authentic Sumatran brewed Coffee at least once. You might not like it on its own, but you will at least get an understanding of what this bean brings to the table.


FAQs

How is Sumatra coffee made?

Sumatra coffee is generally shade grown in small farms. It's the climate combined with the wet hulling 'giling basah' processing that gives this beans its unique flavour, however. 

What kind of coffee is Sumatra?

Sumatra is mostly Arabica coffee. The islands unique climate create the perfect conditions for Arabica coffee. The constant mixture of sunshine and rain create an environment where the coffee plant thrives.

Does Sumatra coffee have more caffeine?

No, Sumatra coffee does not have more caffeine than other Arabicas. Robusta beans have more caffeine than Arabica, but most coffees from Sumatra are Arabicas. If you're looking for highly caffeinated beans, you may want to see this list.

Is Sumatran coffee low in acididy?

In general, Sumatra is a region known for producing coffee low in acidity levels. When compared to other popular beans (such as Kenyan coffee), yes: sumatran coffee is low in acidity.


References:

  1. Coffee varieties in Sumatra. (2016, December 14). Retrieved May 30, 2019, from https://www.fivesenses.com.au/blog/coffee-varieties-in-sumatra/
  2. How coffee went from the hands of the Dutch to the world. (n.d.). Retrieved May 30, 2019, from https://www.thejakartapost.com/life/2018/01/19/how-coffee-went-from-the-hands-of-the-dutch-to-the-world.html
  3. Lynch, R. (2018, September 02). Indonesian Wet Hulled Coffee: Your One-Stop Guide. Retrieved May 30, 2019, from https://www.perfectdailygrind.com/2015/10/indonesian-wet-hulled-coffee-your-one-stop-guide/
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Alex
 

Alex is the Founder and Editor of Homegrounds.co. He is passionate about brewing amazing coffee at home, and teaching others to do the same.